Osteochondrosis is a disease in which degenerative and dystrophic processes occur that affect the tissues of the spine. A person has damage to the intervertebral discs, as well as to the surfaces of the joints and vertebrae themselves. Methods of treatment of osteochondrosis are varied. And they are associated with a specific area of the spine in which the disease develops.
During the development of the disease, bone tissue and ligaments are most often affected. It should be noted that a person notices the development of the disease only when the appearance of pain is observed, the level of sensitivity is disturbed, atrophy of muscle tissue develops, as well as poor functioning of internal organs.
Osteochondrosis is an unpleasant disease, especially if the stage is quite severe. Eliminating the disease is not easy. In this case, it is very important not to delay treatment and to choose the most effective method.
Today, more than half of the world's population suffers from this disease. Basically, osteochondrosis begins to bother people who have reached the age of 35-40 years. Therefore, effective treatment of osteochondrosis is the key to a healthy back and spine.
The process of disease development
Osteochondrosis develops gradually, therefore it has several stages of development.
This stage begins with the dehydration of the nucleus pulposus. Due to this location of the vertebral disc, it is disturbed and cracks are formed in the ring. At this stage, the development of the disease does not go beyond the affected disc.
It is characterized by the fact that due to improper placement of the disc, the fixation of the muscle corset comes close. Due to this, the muscles and ligaments begin to sag, which leads to excessive mobility of the adjacent vertebrae. There is a displacement of the vertebrae relative to each other, due to which spondylolisthesis develops.
It is characterized by the most significant changes that occur in the vertebral discs. The formation of prolapsed discs begins, damage is observed in the articular apparatus of the musculoskeletal system, subluxations occur, arthrosis develops.
This stage of the disease is due to the fact that the affected areas undergo changes to which the body tries to get used to. At this stage, the body tries to cope with the excess mobility of the vertebrae, to activate the spine in order to maintain vital functions. Thus, bone formations begin to grow on the surface of the vertebrae, which leads to damage to the nerve endings in them. After that, the vertebra is immobilized, and the manifestations of the disease occur inside.
Diagnosis of the disease
In order to determine the necessary methods of treating osteochondrosis, a correct and complete diagnosis is necessary, which makes it possible to determine in which particular area the disease develops and for what reasons. Depending on where the disease is concentrated, there are such types of osteochondrosis:
- cervical - characterized by pain in the upper extremities and shoulder girdle, the pattern of manifestations is such that there are headaches that turn into arterial migraine, tinnitus.
- chest - the pain syndrome is localized in the chest, the pain spreads to other internal organs of the peritoneum and chest.
- lumbosacral - accompanied by pain in the lower back, which radiates to the lower extremities and the sacrum, in addition, there may be a loss of sensitivity of the muscle fibers of the affected area.
- a combination of several types of osteochondrosis is a common case in medical practice, therefore, complex treatment of osteochondrosis is necessary to avoid many complications.
Treatment and its types
There are two types of treatment for osteochondrosis - conservative and surgical. The use of one or another type depends entirely on the severity and stage of development of the disease. In addition, the internal reserves of the state of the organs and the vitamin base in the body are very important for the healing process.
Considering the treatment of osteochondrosis as a conservative method, as well as a further period of rehabilitation after it, it should be noted that an integrated approach is important. It is based on the simultaneous use of several therapy methods. Modern medicine reduces the method of conservative treatment to two main components: the use of drug treatment and treatment with the help of hardware equipment. However, it must be said that both of these types do not take into account the body's own recovery forces, the treatment proceeds as if the patient were absent. It is this aspect that leads to a longer recovery period, sometimes treatment for osteochondrosis may be unnecessary because of this.
Treatment of osteochondrosis by a conservative method, as well as a period of rehabilitation, includes several methods of treating diseases:
- health-enhancing exercise complex;
- isometric physiotherapy;
- manual processing;
- massages and hydromassages;
- spinal traction therapy;
- treatment of osteochondrosis by stimulation methods;
- ultrasound and laser treatment;
- mobilization-vacuum therapy;
- diet and proper nutrition;
- therapy aimed at restoring and maintaining the psyche;
- drug therapy.
It is important to say that choosing the right one from many different medical methods and methods in minimal quantities, for example, in acute attacks of the course of the disease.
However, drug treatment is necessary in any case, so the treatment of osteochondrosis with drugs may include methods:
- pain relief - taking various painkillers and analgesics;
- suppression of inflammation - taking drugs aimed at eliminating inflammatory processes in places of localization of the disease;
- antispasmodics - drugs designed to suppress muscle spasms;
- antioxidants - taking products with a high content of vitamins;
- activation of blood microcirculation;
- psychedelics - drug maintenance of a normal psychological state.
Treatment of osteochondrosis by surgical intervention is used in cases where a person may lose his ability to work due to the gradual development of the disease. Before deciding on an operation, it is necessary to undergo a thorough examination and consult with specialists.
It is important to know that all patients suspected of developing osteochondrosis are referred for MRI. If this examination shows that there are abnormalities in the body that exceed the norm, the doctor may recommend surgery. However, in most cases where a person does not complain of severe pain, surgery is not prescribed.
Treatment of osteochondrosis by surgery is necessary in two cases:
- whether a person has a ponytail sign;
- if a person cannot control the process of urination and defecation.
Cauda equina syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system of the lower region of the spine. That is, in the spinal cord there is a bifurcation of the nerve roots. At the same time, if during the process of palpation of the nerve endings a person feels pain, the operation cannot be avoided.
He will note that surgical intervention for osteochondrosis is carried out in two stages. First, specialists eliminate the cause of the pain, and then apply methods of stabilizing the spine. If they speak medical language, decompression and stabilization surgery is performed simultaneously. The methodology of surgical treatment may be different. The choice of a specific method depends only on the individual case of the course of the disease and depends mainly on the choice of the surgeon.